I'm extremely fortunate that I can trace so many of my ancestral lines back many generations, the result, I suppose, of having so much Dutch and New England ancestry centered in locations where good vital records were kept from early times. My most recent brickwall--"recent" meaning how near in time to this present generation--is one of my maternal great-great-grandmothers, Berber "Barbara" J. DeJONG. On my ahnentafel (ancestor report), she appears as number 25, being my mother's father's father's mother. This is what I wish to know about her: I would like to know exactly where she was born, to confirm the names of her parents and any siblings she may have had, and discover the story of that family unit. I suspect that because I cannot find much information that her parents may have died young, or some other event occurred that made her appear to be an "orphan" ancestor, with no history, so to speak, until she immigrates with my great-great-grandfather, marries, and has children.
Here is what I know:
Berber J. DeJONG was born 9 April 1858 in the Netherlands. This information comes from her death certificate, which states she died 1 June 1934 at the age of 76 years 1 month, 23 days , as well as from the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, which states her month and year of birth as April 1858 and her birthplace as the Netherlands . Her age and birthplace listed in the 1910, 1920, and 1930 Federal Censuses are consistent with this information [3, 4, 5], and her children's various vital and census records all give her birthplace as the Netherlands or "Holland".
She immigrated from the Netherlands with her fiance, Tjamme "James" Wiegers VALK, arriving from the port of Amsterdam at New York City on the ship, Surrey, on 2 June 1882. They were steerage passengers and their names appear as "B. Dejong" and "Tj. de Val" respectively. Tjamme was from the village of Marrum, municipality of Ferwerderadeel, the Province of Friesland. There are many people with the surname DeJONG listed in various Ferwerderadeel databases, but none seem to fit Berber's family. She married Tjamme on 21 June 1882 in Rock Island Co., Illinois. Both the immigration and marriage information are consistent with the Valk oral family history. However, some minor details do not comply. Supposedly, this couple knew each other before immigration, were engaged, and married on board ship by the captain (nothing on the passenger list confirms this). The oral family history goes on with the statement that the couple had to be married again once they reached shore, and that the Dutch community in Rock Island gave them a housewarming or some other type of bridal shower to celebrate their marriage.
On 29 May 1883, Barbara gave birth to a daughter, Chaterina T. VALK in Rock Island.  Chaterina was likely named for James' mother, Trijntje "Katherine" (DOLSTRA) VALK. This is interesting, because in the Dutch culture, the first daughter was usually named for the maternal grandmother. Katherine played an important role in James and Barbara's household, as we shall later see. This is my first piece of information that makes me suspect something had happened to Barbara's parents by this time or that she was alienated from the family in some way. The middle initial "T" likely stood for Tjammes, as the Dutch naming system included patronyms (Chaterina Tjammes--daughter of Tjamme--VALK). On 5 June 1883, little Chaterina died. 
On 5 November 1884 another daughter was born, also named Chaterina and nicknamed Tryntje. This baby was born in South Rock Island, and was the only Illinois-born child of James and Barbara to have her birth officially recorded by the local government. James' occupation is listed as a day laborer, key to the point that he never appears once in the city directories for Rock Island during the four-year period they lived there. Day laborers and immigrants often did not appear in early city directories. [11, 12]
My great-grandfather, William Tjammes VALK and his twin sister Jennie D. James VALK, were born 6 August 1886 in Rock Island.  Of the eight children Barbara gave birth to, William was the first one to survive childhood. The "D" in Jennie's name may have stood for DOLSTRA, her paternal grandmother's maiden name. Within the next eight months, the family moved to Holland, Ottawa Co., Michigan, where Jennie died on 19 April 1887. [14, 15] The family moved yet again, to Grand Rapids, Kent Co., Michigan, where Barbara gave birth to another daughter, Jennie James VALK, on 29 December 1888.  Jennie was the first daughter to survive childhood. The 1889-1890 city directory listed the family's address as 534 Turner (now located near the I-196/State Highway 131 interchange).  Jennie's birth was followed by another daughter, Geertje James VALK, on 2 May 1890, the last of the three Valk children who attained adulthood. [18, 19]
Possible house or house location of the Valk family in 1890. From Google Maps.
At this time, the family was living on the south side of Quimby Street in Grand Rapids, just a few houses west of the intersection of Quimby and Union Avenue, and just south of the location of the present-day Kent Country Club.  On 12 April 1891, tragedy struck their household as their oldest daughter, little Chaterina, age 6, died of drowning. [21, 22] I have no details; perhaps I can request a search of The Grand Rapids Press and The Grand Rapids Herald for that time frame to see if there was any article about it.
By the time another daughter, Chaterina "Catherine" VALK, born 17 February 1895 came along, the family was renting a house at 534 North Ionia Street [23, 24, 25]. This was James and Barbara's third and final attempt at naming a girl for James's mother. This baby also died, on 4 July 1895, from summer complaint (diarrhea; usually in infants, caused by spoiled milk). [26, 27] (There are no longer any homes on this part of Ionia Street, as it flanks the main arterial in town, Division Street, just off the off-ramp of I-196/Gerald Ford Parkway.)
The following summer, a son--the last child born to the VALKs--was born on 30 June 1896. His name was recorded as "Tammie J. VALK" in the family Bible , although the correct spelling would have been "Tjamme". Although he was obviously named for his father, instead of anglicizing his name to James, it was recorded as Thomas (probably an incorrect assumption by the English-speaking county clerk) on his death record. The Fourth of July could never have been a truly happy event for this immigrant family, since not only had their last Chaterina died on that date, but so did little Tjamme, in 1897. [29, 30]
The Valk Family. C. 1915 - 1918, probably in Grand Rapids, Kent Co., Michigan. Original believed to be believed to be privately held by John Hanson Heidema, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Little Silver, New Jersey, 2000. [Note: This photograph depicts James, Barbara, their daughters and sons-in-law; son William is missing. Perhaps he is the photographer.]
Tjamme Wiegers and Berber J. (DeJONG) VALK. Bef. 1922. Original believed to be privately held by John Hanson Heidema, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Little Silver, New Jersey, 2000. [Note: This photo was probably taken when James had been hospitalized for jaundice, as he appears to be wearing some sort of hospital gown.]
Berber J. (DeJONG) VALK with grandson Gerritt John HEIDEMA, Jr. C. 1919, Kent County, Michigan. Original believed to be privately held by John Hanson Heidema, [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Little Silver, New Jersey, 2000.
On 6 July 1901, a newspaper article in The Grand Rapids Press's real estate section mentioned that James had bought four acres at 1315 West Leonard in Walker Township (now a part of the City of Grand Rapids) for $1300.  It was this small farm that would be the Valk family's final home. On 12 May 1912, James's mother Trijntje passed away. [32, 33] Ten years later, James himself died on 15 May 1922.  Barbara herself lived to the age of 76, dying 1 June 1934 of valvular heart disease and dropsy. 
Grave of Berber J. (DeJONG) VALK, Greenwood Cemetery, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Original privately held by Miriam Robbins Midkiff [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Spokane, Washington. 2009.
Neither her obituary  or probate records  list any other family members besides her three surviving children. Her death certificate states her father's name as "Sjerd De Jonge" [sic - correct Dutch spelling should be "Sjoerd"].  Understanding the way the Dutch named their children for their parents and siblings, it is very likely that Barbara's mother's name was a Dutch or Frisian variation of the English "Jennie," such as Janna, Janetje, or Janke. We know that there were three attempts by James and Barbara to name a daughter after his mother (Trijntje, Chaterina, Katherine, etc.). Gertrude (Geertje) was probably named after the only other known woman in the family, James' maternal aunt, Grietje Gerrits (DOLSTRA) DeVRIES. Thus, the two attempts to name a daughter Jennie probably stem from the desire to honor Barbara's mother or other female relative. Barbara's middle initial, J, probably also is a reference to her mother, as Dutch people usually used their patronym (in this case being Sjoerds) as a middle name.
In my attempt to find out more about Barbara's roots, I've researched three online database websites: Genlias (the Dutch National Archives), Tresoar (the Friesland Provincial Archives) and Efskip Terdoarpen (a personal genealogy project highlighting the resources of the municipality of Ferwerderadeel, where the Valk family lived for several generations prior to immigration). I have found a Berber deJONG born 28 May 1858 to Klaas Jitzes deJONG and Jacobje Uiltjes HETTINGA in the Tresoar index, but investigating this family closely leads me to believe quite confidently that this is not my Barbara. Because I have not been successful finding Barbara or her family in Friesland resources, I wonder if she came from the neighboring province of Groningen, which also had many people of Frisian ethnicity living there. Groningen online resources are not as proliferate as the ones from Friesland, so I should probably research microfilmed ones, although I'm not certain where to start. Perhaps church records in Grand Rapids will yield some clues, too. If anyone can give me specific ideas for research, I will be most appreciative!
This post was incredibly difficult to write, due to its length, as well as the organization, analysis and citation of records. I certainly don't expect it to be of interest to anyone other than family members, or perhaps those with experience working with Dutch records. However, it was a good exercise in carefully examining what I do and do not have and putting it into an orderly timeline.
1. Michigan Department of Health, death certificate 1260 (1934), Barbara Valk; Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing.
2. "1900 United States Federal Census," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 16 November 2008), entry for Barbaril Faulk, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
3. "1910 United States Federal Census," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed16 November 2008), entry for Barbara Valk, Walker Township, Kent County, Michigan.
4. "1920 United States Federal Census," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 15 November 2008), entry for Barber Valk, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
5. "1930 United States Federal Census," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 18 April 2007), entry for Barbara Valk, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
6. "New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 16 February 2009), entries for Tj. de Val and B. deJong, arrived 2 June 1882, Surrey.
7. van der Ploeg, Catharinus, "Familienamen/Surnames" database, Stichting Erfskip Terpdoarpen (http://www.erfskipterpdoarpen.nl/: accessed 16 February 2009), entries for DeJong surname.
8. Rock Island County, Illinois, "Index to marriage registers, 1834-1925; marriage registers, 1833-1924," liber D, pg. 160, record no. 11976, James Falk & Miss Barbara DeYong entry; County Clerk, City of Rock Island. FHL microfilm 1,428,580, item 6. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.
9. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897, Bijbel, dat is De Gansche Heilige Schrift (Amsterdam and Haarlem: De Nederlandsche Bijbel-Compagnie, 1870); privately held by Elizabeth (Hanson) Heidema (deceased 2001), [ADDRESS FOR PRIVATE USE,] Clifford Lake, Michigan, 2000. The family records are written in Dutch, presumably by TrijntjeValk. It appears that the provenance of this Bible can be traced from Elizabeth Heidema to her mother-in-law, Jennie James (Valk) Heidema VanderWal, to her mother, Trijntje Valk, the original owner.
11. Rock Island County, Illinois, "Births, stillbirths, and established or delayed births, 1875-1978," liber 2, pg. 115, record no. 1478, Catrina Faulk entry; County Clerk, City of Rock Island. FHL microfilm 1,428,685, item 2. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.
12. "Rock Island and Moline, Illinois Directories, 1882-92" database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 16 February 2009), entries for Valk, Faulk, and related surnames using Soundex feature.
13. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
15. "Michigan Death Records, 1867 - 1967" database, FamilySearch Record Search (http://pilot.familysearch.org: accessed 28 February 2009), entry for Jennie Valk.
16. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
17. "Grand Rapids City Directories, 1889-90" database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 February 2009), entry for James Valk, 1889.
18. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Birth Records, Book 8: 255, Gertrude Valk, 1890. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
19. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
20."Grand Rapids City Directories, 1889-90" database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 28 February 2009), entry for James Valk, 1890.
21. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Death Records, Book 3: 291, Tryntje Valk, 1891. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
22. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
23. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Birth Records, Book 10: 375, Catherine Valk, 1895. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
24. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
25. "1900 United States Federal Census," database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 16 November 2008), entry for Barbaril Faulk, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
26. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Death Records, Book 4: 184, Catherine Valk, 1895. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
27. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
29. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Death Records, Book 4: 306, Thomas Valk, 1897. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
30. Trijntje Gerrits (Dolstra) Valk Family Bible Records, 1883 - 1897.
31. ---, “For Small Homes There is a Demand in South and East Ends. Prices Grow Stiff and Real Estate Market is in a Healthy Condition. There Were Several Large Transfers Placed on Record This Past Week,” The Grand Rapids (Michigan) Press, 6 July 1901, pg. 3, col. 3 – 4; digital image, GenealogyBank.com (http://www.genealogybank.com : 7 January 2009), Historical Newspapers.
32. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Death Records, Book 8: 118, Kathrine Valk, 1922. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
33. Michigan Department of Health, death certificate 4481 (1912), Kathrine Valk; Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing.
34. Grand Rapids, Michigan, Death Records, Book 11: 191, James Valk, 1922. City Clerk's Office, Grand Rapids.
35. Michigan Department of Health, death certificate 1260 (1934), Barbara Valk; Division of Vital Statistics, Lansing.
36. ---, “Obituary,” The Grand Rapids (Michigan) Press, 2 June 1934, pg. 18, unknown column.
37. Kent County, Michigan , Will Book 911: 195, Barbara Valk; Office of the County Probate Court Clerk, Grand Rapids.
38. Michigan death certificate 1260 (1934), Barbara Valk.